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Methods for Producing and Using Perovskite Materials and Devices Therefrom

Stage: Development

Perovskite photovoltaics are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar power performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure. In photovoltaic applications, the A cation can be either organic, inorganic, or hybrid in composition. The B component is typically a metal cation such as lead, and X is a halide such as iodine or bromine. Work on solar cells using perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes – resulting in high device efficiencies with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. While the potential for perovskite photovoltaic devices is high, commercialization will require overcoming other challenges relating to material stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility.

NREL researchers have developed novel one- and two-step deposition methods for MAPbI3 and MAPbI2Br perovskite solution growth that involve the introduction of MACl to the perovskite precursor solution. These methods have been demonstrated through current-voltage (I-V) curves to improve both the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the short-circuit current (JSC) of perovskite films and through X-ray diffraction to enhance the crystal structure formation. In addition, NREL researchers have developed dip-coating and spray-coating techniques, where the substrate is either immersed in and withdrawn from the perovskite precursor solution or sprayed with the perovskite precursor by a spray gun or similar equipment.  These coating methods enable high throughput manufacturing and can maximize the yield of the precursor into final device architecture.

This patent is within the Film Efficiency, Film Stability, and Film Deposition categories of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Film Efficiency category consists of film deposition methods, chemistry improvements, and engineering of device layer and architecture to push commercial perovskite device efficiencies to 20% and beyond.

The Film Stability category comprises technologies that improve perovskite devices’ resistance to environmental factors that degrade device performance over time. These technologies include methods of depositing perovskite films, encapsulant coatings, and novel film chemistries.

The Film Deposition category consists of novel methods for more rapid, less expensive, and more effective means of depositing perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and are prepared for scaling to commercial levels.

For more information, contact Bill Hadley at Bill.Hadley@nrel.gov

ROI 14-51

Applications and Industries

  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
  • Film Deposition


  • Improves VOC and JSC
  • Enhances crystal structure formation
  • Suitable for high-throughput manufacturing
  • Maximizes yield of precursor