Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also easily poisoned by carbon monoxide and very expensive. Tolerance to carbon monoxide can be increased by using a particle composite consisting of clusters or an atomically thin layer of the platinum on a ruthenium particle. When used as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of fuel at a fuel cell anode, this structure exhibits low platinum loading and elevated tolerance to carbon monoxide when compared to commercially available platinum/carbon electrocatalysts. These structures can be used in fuel cells and other electrocatalytic or heterogeneous catalytic applications.
Ruthenium nanoparticles are deposited on a conductive support and exposed to hydrogen at elevated temperature. The hydrogen-exposed nanoparticles are then cooled and placed in contact with a solution of Group VIII noble metal compound(s), such as platinum. The noble metal is deposited on the surface of the nanoparticles as clusters or an atomically thin layer, forming an active electrocatalyst.
Applications and Industries
Fuel cell catalysts; replacement for platinum/carbon catalysts and electrocatalysts; heterogeneous catalysis.
The platinum/ruthenium particle composite offers high catalytic activity and good carbon monoxide tolerance at lower cost than bulk platinum/carbon catalysts.